Treatment of Alcohol-Related Psychosis?
Amphetamine-induced psychosis often results after increased or large use of amphetamines, as observed in binge use or after protracted use. Prescription amphetamines induce the release of dopamine in a dose-dependent manner; low doses of amphetamines deplete large storage vesicles, and high doses deplete small storage vesicles. This increase in dopaminergic activity may be causally related to psychotic symptoms because the use of D2-blocking agents (eg, haloperidol) often ameliorates these symptoms. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been used as a model to support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, in which overactivity of dopamine in the limbic system and striatum is associated with psychosis. However, negative symptoms commonly observed in schizophrenia are relatively rare in amphetamine psychosis.
@leena Initial treatment should include medically stabilizing the patient's condition by assessing his or her respiratory, circulatory, and neurologic systems. The offending substance may be eliminated by means of gastric lavage and acidification of the urine. Psychotropic medication can be used to stabilize an agitated patient with psychosis. Because most cases of amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders are self-limiting, removal of the amphetamines should suffice.
Induced emesis, lavage, or charcoal may be helpful in the event of overdose.
The excretion of amphetamines can be accelerated by the use of ammonium chloride, given either IV or orally (PO).
Amphetamine intoxication can be treated with ammonium chloride, often found in OTC expectorants, such as ammonium chloride (Quelidrine), baby cough syrup, Romilar, and P-V-Tussin.
The recommended dose to acidify the urine is ammonium chloride 500 mg every 2-3 hours.
The ingredients in OTC cough syrups vary, and the clinician should become familiar with 1 or 2 stock items for use in the emergency department.