For appetite control, a low-fat, plant-based diet has advantages over a low-carbohydrate, animal-based ketogenic diet, although the keto diet wins when it comes to keeping post-meal glucose and insulin levels in check, new research suggests. In a highly controlled crossover study conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), people consumed fewer daily calories when on a low-fat, plant-based diet, but their insulin and blood glucose levels were higher than when they followed a low-carbohydrate, animal-based diet.
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Plant-Based or Keto Diet? Novel Study Yields Surprising Results
Sleep Apnea Is Underdiagnosed in Cardiovascular Disease
Several scientific studies have indicated a connection between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. According to Elizabeth Muxfeldt, MD, PhD, cardiologist and professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and Estácio de Sá University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among individuals with drug-resistant hypertension is around 80%. Leonardo Siqueira, MD, electrophysiologist at the UFRJ Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital, estimates that approximately half of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have some degree of obstructive sleep apnea. Despite the prominence of the condition, obstructive sleep apnea remains underdiagnosed in the general population as well as among patients with cardiovascular diseases. In light of this fact, an alert was sounded during a virtual session of the 39th Congress of the State of Rio de Janeiro Society of Cardiology (SOCERJ), which took place in May.
Culinary Culprits: Foods That May Harm the Brain
For all the attention paid to the negative effects poor dietary choices have on the body, the effects of diet on the brain are largely unexplored. However, emerging research is providing new insights to support the suggestion that food can have a profound influence on mental health and cognition. From sugar and carbohydrates to fats and even, according to one controversial theory, whole grains, the list of dietary choices having potentially negative effects on the brain is growing by leaps and bounds. And although the big caveat for the bulk of evidence is that most studies show an association with but not necessarily causation of mental health and cognitive deficits, many clinicians report seeing first-hand improvement in patients' mental health outcomes with the tweaking of a diet to eliminate some of the most notorious culinary culprits.
Resting Heart Rate Predicts Fitness Level
The inverse relation between resting heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption is directly correlated with physical fitness and adiposity. Resting heart rate is a biomarker for fitness and, therefore, a predictor of cardiorespiratory health. An increase in resting heart rate has been linked to an increase in all-cause mortality from chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Resting heart rate can be used as a low-cost, noninvasive way to assess risk for cardiovascular disease and the effectiveness of interventions related to physical activity.