@mainak An increased focus on the significance of age at the time of the final menstrual period, compared with chronological age, has gained interest in risk assessment because of the known acceleration in the decline of BMD that occurs 1 year prior to the final menstrual period and continues at a rapid pace for 3 years afterwards before slowing. To further investigate the association with BMD, Shieh, an endocrinologist specializing in osteoporosis at the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues turned to data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal cohort study of ambulatory women with pre- or early perimenopausal baseline data and 15 annual follow-up assessments.
Latest posts made by Manami
RE: Bone Risk: Is Time Since Menopause a Better Predictor Than Age?
RE: Childhood Asthma May Begin Before Birth
@sunidhi In general, boys are more likely than girls to have asthma at a young age; however, boys often grow out of it but girls are less likely to. In the WHEALS cohort, a more mature bacterial community at 1 month and a more immature bacterial community at 6 months were associated with allergic asthma in both boys and girls.
How to treat Amebiasis?
Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica (see the image below), a protozoan that is found worldwide (see Etiology). The highest prevalence of amebiasis is in developing countries where barriers between human feces and food and water supplies are inadequate. Although most cases of amebiasis are asymptomatic, dysentery and invasive extraintestinal disease can occur. Amebic liver abscess is the most common manifestation of invasive amebiasis, but other organs can also be involved, including pleuropulmonary, cardiac, cerebral, renal, genitourinary, peritoneal, and cutaneous sites. In developed countries, amebiasis primarily affects migrants from and travelers to endemic regions, men who have sex with men, and immunosuppressed or institutionalized individuals.
Pathophysiology of hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia—defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L—is a common and important electrolyte imbalance that can be seen in isolation or, as most often is the case, as a complication of other medical illnesses (eg, heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, pneumonia).
Hyponatremia is also classified according to volume status, as follows:
Hypovolemic hyponatremia: decrease in total body water with greater decrease in total body sodium
Euvolemic hyponatremia: normal body sodium with increase in total body water
Hypervolemic hyponatremia: increase in total body sodium with greater increase in total body water
RE: What should I do if I get anosmia?'
@samik Treatment depends on the cause. If the loss of smell occurs with a cold, allergy, or sinus infection, it typically will clear up on its own in a few days. You should consult your doctor if the anosmia doesn’t clear up once the cold or allergy symptoms have subsided.
Treatments that may help resolve anosmia caused by nasal irritation include:
steroid nasal sprays
antibiotics, for bacterial infections
reducing exposure to nasal irritants and allergens
cessation of smoking
Loss of smell caused by nasal obstruction can be treated by removing whatever is obstructing your nasal passage. This removal may involve a procedure to remove nasal polyps, straighten the nasal septum, or clear out the sinuses.
RE: Is continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) effective to monitor diabetes?
@sucheta People with diabetes need to keep their blood glucose levels in a healthy range, using a device called a glucose meter or glucometer to measure it. However, sometimes they may need continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to get a bigger and better picture of their glucose levels. An FDA-approved device known as a continuous glucose monitor helps to monitor glucose levels at all times. The device enables individuals to review trends in real-time, and observe glucose changes over a few hours or even days. The device also triggers alerts when glucose levels go too high or too low.
Acute porphyria management options?
A 33-year-old previously healthy woman presented with abdominal pain and behavioral symptoms. She developed hyponatremia, seizures, and rapidly progressive weakness leading to respiratory failure, quadriplegia, and autonomic instability. Cerebrospinal fluid was acellular with normal protein and glucose. Initial nerve conduction studies showed prolonged F waves, and follow-up studies demonstrated absent sensory and motor responses with signs of profuse active denervation on needle examination (fibrillation potentials and reduced recruitment). Quantitative urine testing for porphyria was abnormal and in keeping with AIP. The patient had severe axonal porphyric neuropathy resulting in significant disability. What are the management optons?