Pulmonic stenosis (pulmonary stenosis) (PS) refers to a dynamic or fixed anatomic obstruction to flow from the right ventricle (RV) to the pulmonary arterial vasculature, which leads to RV pressure overload that in turn causes increased contractility and dilation and results in increased wall stress and compensatory RV hypertrophy
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Pulmonic Stenosis (Pulmonary Stenosis) pathophysiology
RE: How FDA Is Working to Improve Oncology Drug Development
@abhilan Mostly this stemmed from the very fast development of many new immune checkpoint inhibitors. Pazdur wrote last year that the "unbridled and rapid growth of checkpoint inhibitors has led to a 'Wild West' of drug development, featuring a stampede of commercial sponsors, clinical trials, and redundant development plans
RE: Probiotic LGG Doesn't Lessen Eczema, Asthma, or Rhinitis Risk by Age 7
@minu The new study builds on the same researchers' randomized, double-masked, parallel-arm, controlled Trial of Infant Probiotic Supplementation (TIPS). That study investigated whether daily administration of LGG in the first 6 months to children at high risk for allergic disease because of asthma in a parent, could decrease their cumulative incidence of eczema. Investigators found LGG had no effect. These additional results included participants at least 7 years old and also included physician-diagnosed asthma and physician-diagnosed rhinitis as secondary outcomes.
RE: Surge in New-Onset Tics in Adults Tied to COVID-19 Stress!
@puneet Tic disorders typically start in childhood. However, the researchers observed an increase in the number of patients with abrupt onset of tic-like movements and vocalizations later in life, which is more often characteristic of functional neurological disorders. To examine the profile, associated conditions, and risk factors in this population the investigators conducted a thorough chart review of patients attending movement disorders clinics between March 2020, when the COVID pandemic was officially declared, and March 2021. Patients with acute onset of tics were identified using the International Classification of Diseases codes for behavioral tics, tic vocalizations, and Tourette syndrome. The charts were then narrowed down to patients with no previous diagnosis of these conditions. Most patients were videotaped for assessment by the rest of the movement disorder neurologists in the practice. Since the end of the study inclusion period in March 2021, Olvera estimates that the clinic experienced a doubling or tripling of the number of similar patients.
RE: Pathophysiology of Alloimmunization From Transfusions?
@mishtu The immunologic mechanism for alloimmunization to antigens present in transfused cells involves presentation of the donor antigens by donor antigen–presenting cells (APCs), ie, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells, to recipient T cells. Recognition of the MHC class II alloantigens by CD4+ recipient T cells and their subsequent activation requires a co-stimulatory signal from either the donor or recipient APCs. The TH 2 subset of CD4+ T helper cells secretes interleukin (IL)–4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10, which activates B cells and initiates the antibody response.
RE: How to get rid of ear wax?
@natasha About the only thing doctors do agree on putting anything inside your ear is a bad idea. Your ears usually do a good job cleaning themselves and don’t need any extra care. The only reason you should clean them is to soften or remove earwax from the outside of your ear canals. And if you’re going to do that, you’ll need to know how to do it carefully. If your problem isn’t serious, but you do feel like you have too much earwax buildup, you can gently clean the outside of your ears. Just use a washcloth. You also can try putting a few drops of baby oil, hydrogen peroxide, mineral oil, or glycerin in your ear to soften the wax. Or you can use an over-the-counter wax removal kit.
RE: How to remove dark spots on skin?
@gourav There are several ways that you can treat hyperpigmentation at home. While several of the remedies we share here are anecdotal, some research suggests their main ingredients work on skin pigmentation.
Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid, which shows may lighten pigmentation.
To use this remedy:
Combine equal parts apple cider vinegar and water in a container.
Apply to your dark patches and leave on two to three minutes.
Rinse using lukewarm water.
Repeat twice daily you achieve the results you desire.
RE: Is achondroplasia curable?
@rini There’s no cure or specific treatment for achondroplasia. If any complications arise, then your doctor will address those issues. For instance, antibiotics are given for ear infections and surgery may be performed in severe cases of spinal stenosis. Some doctors use growth hormones to increase the growth rate of a child’s bones. However, their long-term effects on height haven’t been determined and are thought to be modest at best.
A 56-Year-old Man Hospitalized for Unstable Angina!!
A 56-year-old man was admitted for a diagnostic evaluation of recent onset of chest pain. Three days before admission, he had woken up in the middle of the night with a tight precordial pain of strong intensity, lasting for 20 minutes, radiating to the upper left limb and accompanied by dyspnea, which led him to seek medical attention. The myocardial injury markers were not increased, and the ECG was not considered suggestive of acute myocardial ischemia. After receiving a prescription of atenolol and aspirin, the patient was instructed to seek the Cardiology Department for outpatient care. In the days following the initial clinical presentation, he had two new episodes with lower intensity and sought medical assistance at this Hospital. He also complained of dyspnea on exertion, which progressed over many years and had not intensified in the period. He was a smoker of 40 cigarettes per day and had known hypertension, which was controlled without medication. How to cure this condition?
Pressure sores- home remedy?
An eighty-six year old bedridden elderly man with diabetes, hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, heart disease, cataracts, syphilis, history of duodenal ulcers and a right femoral fracture was placed into a local home for the elderly. With large intestinal hemorrhage due to intestinal cancer, he was admitted to the hospital and underwent colostomy surgery. After surgery, he was placed in the rehabilitation department for recuperation. After approximately one and half months, he was discharged from the hospital but with a Stage III ischemic heel ulcer on his left foot. Initially, the area of his pressure ulcer was 6 cm × 8 cm. Please advise some home remedy.