Older Age for Menopause Raises Risk for Lung Cancer!!
An older age of natural menopause (ANM) appeared to causally increase the risk of lung cancer and decrease the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in analyses of more than 100,000 women that used Mendelian randomization (MR) as a tool to reduce residual confounding. The MR analyses showed no significant association between ANM and breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and Alzheimer's disease.
@ayan The clear lack of a causal effect of ANM on the outcomes of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in the MR analyses despite a strong inverse association seen in the observational data of this study (without MR) suggests residual confounding plays a substantial role in driving the observed outcomes.