Pathophysiology of attachment disorder?
Attachment disorders have been described in the psychological and psychiatric literature for approximately 50 years. These disorders are the psychological result of negative experiences with caregivers, usually since infancy, that disrupt the exclusive and unique relationship between children and their primary caregiver. Oppositional and defiant behaviors may be the result of disruptions in attachment.
@shipra If caregivers are not reliably or consistently present or if they respond in an unpredictable and uncertain way, infants cannot establish a pattern of confident expectation. One result is insecure attachment, or a less-than-optimal internal sense of confidence and trust in others, beginning with caregivers. The child then uses psychological defenses (eg, avoidance or ambivalence) to avoid disappointments with the caregiver. This process is thought to contribute to a negative working model of relationships that leads to lifelong insecurity.