Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired socialization, reduced communication, and restricted, repetitive, or stereotyped activities and interests. As defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), ASD encompasses the previous manual's autistic disorder (autism), Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD is characterized by the following: (1) deficits in social communication and social interaction and (2) restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (RRBs). These symptoms are present from early childhood and limit or impair everyday functioning. Both components are required for diagnosis of ASD. Individuals who have marked deficits in social communication, but whose symptoms do not otherwise meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder, should be evaluated for social (pragmatic) communication disorder.
@riya The symptoms of ASDs typically are present before 3 years of age and often are accompanied by abnormalities in cognitive functioning, learning, attention, and sensory processing. ASDs are associated with numerous comorbidities and disabling symptoms, such as aggression and self-injurious behaviors, for which behavioral and psychopharmacologic interventions are the mainstay of treatment. There is a well-defined increased prevalence in males, with an affected male–to–affected female ratio of approximately 4:1.