Perioperative Anticoagulation Management
In performing noncardiac surgery on patients on anticoagulation, the major concern is when it is safe to perform surgery without increasing the risk of hemorrhage or increasing the risk of thromboembolism (eg, venous, arterial) after discontinuing treatment. In treating patients on long-term warfarin (Coumadin) perioperatively, consider the risks of hemorrhage or thromboembolism versus the benefit from the operation. When considering noncardiac surgery, these factors and the need to weigh the risk of hemorrhage against that of thromboembolism must be analyzed on an individual patient basis. Certain procedures (eg, oncologic procedures, threats to limb or life) are easy analyses. More complex discussions must be had for such cases as hernia repair of other elective nonurgent operations.
@nupur The American College of Chest Physicians proposed guidelines for antithrombotic prophylaxis in patients with different risk factors, and it recommends that if the annual risk for thromboembolism is low, warfarin therapy can be withheld for 4-5 days before the procedure without bridging. Patients with prosthetic heart valves pose a particular problem. Arterial thromboembolism from the heart often results in death (40% of events) or major disability (20% of events). The greatest problem encountered is that no consensus exists regarding the optimal perioperative management of anticoagulation for patients who have been receiving long-term warfarin therapy. Some prospective studies have suggested that patients on long-term warfarin therapy who undergo minor invasive procedures and are taken off their oral anticoagulation for up to 5 days have a less than 1% risk of experiencing a thromboembolic event.