Atypical Anxiety an Intervention Target in Parkinson's?
Atypical anxiety in adults with Parkinson's disease ranged from 15% to 51% in a systematic review of 60 studies. Anxiety is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been shown to increase functional disability and decrease quality of life, but atypical presentations of anxiety are underrecognized and often undertreated in PD patients, wrote Nadeeka N. Dissanayaka, PhD, of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, and colleagues. In a study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry , the researchers conducted a systematic review of 60 studies to better characterize atypical PD-related anxiety. Fourteen studies involved Anxiety Not Otherwise Specified (NOS), 31 included fluctuating anxiety symptoms, and 22 included Fear of Falling (FOF). Overall, the average prevalence rate for anxiety disorders in the PD population was 31%. Anxiety NOS, fluctuating anxiety, and FOF accounted for a weighted mean prevalence of 14.9%, 34.19%, and 51.5%, respectively.
@rajdeep The symptomatology of anxiety NOS included psychological distress about the PD diagnosis, insecurity about the future, fear of losing control of motor and bodily functions, and social embarrassment. Clinically, anxiety NOS was associated with a range of factors including minor depression, on-off motor symptoms, muscle cramps, poor quality of life, and gait impairment. The symptomatology of fluctuating anxiety was assessed in 9 studies of the "on" motor state and 16 studies of both "on" and "off." Symptoms associated with the off state included panic attacks, feeling anxious or sad, and avoiding situations, as well as palpitations, dizziness, chills, and hot flashes. Clinically, studies showed that anxiety was more severe in the off-medication state, and symptoms were reduced in the on state. Data from some studies showed that fluctuating anxiety was more common in PD patients who were female, and who had a younger age of PD onset and longer disease duration.