Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist in Pregnant Women With Gestational Diabetes
Between 2014 and 2020, the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the United States increased among women with gestational diabetes, with persisting differences in adverse outcomes by race and ethnicity, according to a report in JAMA. Population-based studies on racial and ethnic disparities in gestational diabetes have focused on differences in the rate of diagnosis, rather than adverse pregnancy outcomes. The researchers conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study to evaluate whether the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes with gestational diabetes changed over time and whether the risk of these outcomes differed by maternal race and ethnicity. The data were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics Natality Files. Exposures of interest were year of delivery, as well as race and ethnicity.
@nabamita The study cohort included 1,560,822 pregnant women with gestational diabetes aged 15-44 years. Among the study participants the mean age was 31 years (standard deviation, 5.5 years) and the majority were White (48%), followed by Hispanic/Latina (27%), Asian/Pacific Islander (13%), and Black (12%). There was a significant increase in the overall frequency of transfusion (8.0%; 95% confidence interval, 3.8%-12.4%), preeclampsia or gestational hypertension (4.2%; 95% CI, 3.3%-5.2%), NICU admission (1.0%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.7%), and preterm birth at less than 37 weeks (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.5%) from 2014 to 2020 for these women and their infants. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the following outcomes: macrosomia (–4.7%; 95% CI, –5.3% to –4.0%), cesarean delivery (–1.4%; 95% CI, –1.7% to –1.1%), primary cesarean delivery (–1.2%; 95% CI, –1.5% to –0.9%), and large for gestational age (–2.3%; 95% CI, –2.8% to –1.8%), but there was no significant differences in maternal ICU admission and small-for-gestational-age infants.