The Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in which gastrointestinal symptoms may appear prior to motor symptoms. The gut microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease shows unique changes, which may be used as early biomarkers of disease. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the cause or effect of motor or non-motor symptoms, but the specific pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease by regulating neuroinflammation, barrier function and neurotransmitter activity. There is bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the CNS, and the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a pathway for the transmission of α-synuclein.
@jack Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease largely characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons with abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra and striatum. The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are tremor, stiffness, bradykinesia and postural instability. In addition, non-motor symptoms ranging from sensory abnormalities, behavioural changes, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal and autonomic nervous dysfunction may precede the classical motor symptoms. Non-motor symptoms play a dominant role in the clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease and seriously influence a patient's quality of life. More than 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience a variety of severe gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is complex and known to be related to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.