Periodontitis May Be Linked With Systemic Diseases
Periodontitis is a major inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa that progressively affects the integrity of the tissues supporting the teeth. It is associated epidemiologically with several chronic inflammatory disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D), rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain cancers. From a medical and therapeutic standpoint, it is imperative to understand the link between periodontitis and associated comorbidities. A multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease, periodontitis is an exemplar of an imbalanced interaction between the local microbiome and the inflammatory response of the host (dysbiosis). This imbalance contributes to periodontal tissue destruction, leading to bone loss. The main risk factors for the condition are smoking and diabetes.
@vatan Periodontal diseases are mainly the result of infections and inflammation of the gums and bone that surround and support the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums can become swollen and red and may bleed. In its more serious form, periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or even fall out. Periodontal disease is mostly seen in adults. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, periodontal disease and tooth decay are the two biggest threats to dental health. Periodontitis is more common in men than women (56.4% vs 38.4%), those living below the federal poverty level (65.4%), those with less than a high school education (66.9%), and current smokers (64.2%). Although periodontitis is more common in adults and the elderly, the disease can also occur in children and adolescents. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to managing the disease. To best manage periodontitis and systemic diseases, patients should see their doctors on a regular basis.