What are the mammographic features that shows abnormality in breast?
@visha Mammographic features that identify abnormal breast tissue are asymmetry, architectural distortion, and calcifications. Calcifications may represent benign or malignant lesions. Linear and branching calcifications have a higher predictive value for malignancy compared with granular ones. Calcifications have been associated with higher grade, smaller size lymph node positive, hormone receptor—negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive tumors.
The most specific mammographic feature of malignancy, however, is a spiculated soft tissue mass; nearly 90% of these lesions represent invasive cancer. Clustered microcalcifications (calcium particles 0.1-1 mm in diameter and numbering more than 4-5 per cubic centimeter) are found in about 60% of mammographically detected cancers. Skin thickening, increased breast density, and coarsening of stroma may be detected in patients with inflammatory breast cancer.
The following forms of calcifications are all considered benign:
Smooth round or oval calcifications
Large coarse calcifications
Cigar or rod-shaped calcifications
Multiple coarse "popcorn" calcifications