What are symptoms of prostate cancer ?
What are symptoms of prostate cancer?
@ailey Currently, the majority of prostate cancers are identified in patients who are asymptomatic. Diagnosis in such cases is based on elevation of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level on a screening study or findings on digital rectal examination (DRE). In addition, prostate cancer can be an incidental pathologic finding when tissue is removed during transurethral resection to manage obstructive symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Symptoms of local disease
In the pre-PSA era, patients with prostate cancer commonly presented with symptoms that included urinary complaints or retention, back pain, and hematuria. Currently, with PSA screening, most prostate cancers are diagnosed at an asymptomatic stage. When symptoms do occur, diseases other than prostate cancer may be the cause. For example, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and decreased urine stream often result from benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Symptoms of advanced disease
Advanced prostate cancer results from any combination of lymphatic, hematogenous, or contiguous local spread. Skeletal manifestations are especially common because prostate cancer has a strong predilection for metastasizing to the bone.
Manifestations of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer may include the following:
Weight loss and loss of appetite
Bone pain, with or without pathologic fracture
Neurologic deficits from spinal cord compression
Lower extremity pain and edema due to obstruction of venous and lymphatic tributaries by nodal metastasis
Uremic symptoms can occur from urethral obstruction caused by local prostate growth or retroperitoneal adenopathy secondary to nodal metastasis.