Expert Review of Management of Refractory Celiac Disease
The diagnosis and management of refractory celiac disease remains challenging, but ongoing studies can provide the proper diagnostic criteria and identify the optimal management strategies, according to a new American Gastroenterological Association expert review published in Gastroenterology.
Celiac disease is present in about 1% of the U.S. population and can cause various symptoms, wrote Peter H. R. Green, MD, director of the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, and colleagues. Adhering to a strict gluten-free diet can improve symptoms, normalize serum antibody levels, and reverse small bowel villous atrophy. However, recurrent symptoms and elevated celiac antibodies can persist in some patients after a year of trying a gluten-free diet, a condition called nonresponsive celiac disease. In some patients, this raises concern for refractory celiac disease, or RCD.
@suman RCD can be classified into two subtypes with different diagnostic criteria, prognoses, and therapy responses. The first, called RCD1, is characterized by villous atrophy but has intraepithelial lymphocytes similar to conventional celiac disease. The other, called RCD2, is characterized by aberrant clonal T-cell expansion in the intestinal tract and other organs, has a poorer prognosis than RCD1, and has a risk of developing ulcerative jejunoileitis or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. The experts developed 10 clinical practice advice statements based on a review of the published literature and expert opinion.